Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are
replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from
the sun, wind, rain, tides of ocean, biomass and geothermal resources
from heat generated deep within the earth In 2008, about 19% of global
final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from
traditional biomass, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. The share of
renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global
electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.
Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct
* Power generation.
* Hot water.
* Transport fuels.
* Rural (off-grid) energy services
Table 1: Selected renewable energy indicators,
WWW.Renewable energy-Wikipedia.the Free encyclopedia
Selected global indicators 2007 2008 2009
Investment in renewable 1 04 130 150
capacity (annual) billion
Existing renewable power 1.070 1.140 1.230
capacity, including large-wale GWe
Exiting renewable power 240 2 😯 305 Gwe
capacity, excluding large
Wind power Capacity (existing) 94 121 159 Gwc
Solar PV capacity 7.6 13.5 21 Gwe
Solar hot water capacity 126 149 180
Ethanol production (annual) 50 69 76
Biodiesel production (animal) 10 15 17
Countries with policy targets 68 75 85
for renewable entity use
A rather simplistic way of identifying the most appropriate option
for the continent on a whole could be to identify the options that
appear to be applicable in all the sub-regions. These are:
1. Efficient energy use at the household level
2. Improved data collection on energy use in the agriculture sector
3. Greater use of other renewable energy resources and technologies
(excluding biomass) in the agriculture sector
4. Regulatory measures in the transport sector
5. Energy efficiency in the transport sector
In terms of institutional and policy measures that would be needed
to advance the aforementioned sustainable energy options, the following
set of measures could be considered:
* Setting targets, which include identifying and setting goals for
the incremental contribution of sustainable energy to total national
energy supply. The use of tradable sustainable energy certificates could
assist in further promotion of sustainable energy options in Africa.
* Ensuring the fair comparisons for sustainable energy options and
conventional energy form e.g. eliminating *explicit and hidden subsidies
to the conventional energy industry.
* Enacting a legal and regulatory framework that facilitates the
development of sustainable energy options and provides, among other
incentives, access to the grid and transportation fuels market.
* Setting up regional funds for financing large scale sustainable
energy investments in Africa. A more elaborate set of interventions and
policy options should be designed and further developed with the
cooperation of International agencies such as, UNEP. Comprehensive set
of policy options should be proposed to ensure sustainable energy
consumption in Africa in the near-term as well as in the long-term
HYDROELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION
In the African continent, the hydro potential amounts to 1.75 TWh
with about 5% only in real operation as indicated in figure 2. The total
hydropower potential for Africa is equivalent to the total electricity
consumed in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy put together.
The Democratic Republic of Congo accounts for over 50% of Africa’s
hydropower potential, to the order of 100,000 MW. Of this potential
44,000 MW is at Inga, a series of rapids about 150km from the mouth of
the Congo River. Other countries with hydropower potential include
Angola, Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Madagascar, Mozambique, Niger
and Zambia, AEEP,2009. Large-scale hydropower provides over 50% of total
power supply in 23 countries in Africa. Hydropower can benefit from
economies of scale to produce very low priced power in the range of 3-4
USc/kWh. It contributes to both energy security and increased access to
energy. At the same time hydropower faces risks of siltation, droughts
and potentially has impacts on human settlements and other land uses.
unexploited technical and economically feasible 57.9%
unexploited, technically feasible 37.1%
in operation 49.%
Note: Table made from pie chart.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Applications of Solar Energy
BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC (BIPV) SYSTEMS
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
Application of PV systems
PV On – Grid Application
PV Off-Grid Application
PV installation guide
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
The locations along the Gulf of Suez of Zafaranna, Gabal ElZeit.
Hurghada have wind speeds up to 10.8 m/s. Main on grid power is already
generated from Zafaranna Wind Turbines.
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
Africa-EU Energy Partnership Road Map, 2009, AEEP Road Map, v8,
Hubbert, M.K., 1972, Man’s Conquest of Energy: Its Ecological
and Human Consequences”, in the Environmental and Ecological Forum
1971-1972, Washington, D.C., US Atomic Energy Commission Publication
IEA, International Energy Agency Year book, 2009
Karakes S., Wangeci. J and Manyara E., 2009, African Energy Policy
Research Network (AFREPREN/FWD).Nairobi, Kenya
Khalil, E.E., Renewable Energy in Africa, ASHRAE seminar, January
UN-DESA 2009, f Division for Sustainable Development, UN-DESA
UN-DESA, 2004, Sustainable Energy Consumption in Africa, UN-DESA
Report,2004 WWW.Renewable energy-Wikipedia.the Free encyclopedia, 2009.
Prof. Essam E. Khalil, PHD
Essam E. Khalil is a professor in the Department of Mechanical
Power Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.