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The role of solar and other renewable energy sources on the strategic energy planning: Africa’s status & views.

RENEWABLE ENERGY

General

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are

replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from

the sun, wind, rain, tides of ocean, biomass and geothermal resources

from heat generated deep within the earth In 2008, about 19% of global

final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from

traditional biomass, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. The share of

renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global

electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.

Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct

areas:

* Power generation.

* Hot water.

* Transport fuels.

* Rural (off-grid) energy services

Table 1: Selected renewable energy indicators,

WWW.Renewable energy-Wikipedia.the Free encyclopedia

Selected global indicators 2007 2008 2009

Investment in renewable 1 04 130 150

capacity (annual) billion

CSD

Existing renewable power 1.070 1.140 1.230

capacity, including large-wale GWe

hydro

Exiting renewable power 240 2 😯 305 Gwe

capacity, excluding large

hydro

Wind power Capacity (existing) 94 121 159 Gwc

Solar PV capacity 7.6 13.5 21 Gwe

(grid-connected)

Solar hot water capacity 126 149 180

GWth

Ethanol production (annual) 50 69 76

billion

liters

Biodiesel production (animal) 10 15 17

billion

liters

Countries with policy targets 68 75 85

for renewable entity use

AVAILABLE OPTIONS

A rather simplistic way of identifying the most appropriate option

for the continent on a whole could be to identify the options that

appear to be applicable in all the sub-regions. These are:

1. Efficient energy use at the household level

2. Improved data collection on energy use in the agriculture sector

3. Greater use of other renewable energy resources and technologies

(excluding biomass) in the agriculture sector

4. Regulatory measures in the transport sector

5. Energy efficiency in the transport sector

In terms of institutional and policy measures that would be needed

to advance the aforementioned sustainable energy options, the following

set of measures could be considered:

* Setting targets, which include identifying and setting goals for

the incremental contribution of sustainable energy to total national

energy supply. The use of tradable sustainable energy certificates could

assist in further promotion of sustainable energy options in Africa.

* Ensuring the fair comparisons for sustainable energy options and

conventional energy form e.g. eliminating *explicit and hidden subsidies

to the conventional energy industry.

* Enacting a legal and regulatory framework that facilitates the

development of sustainable energy options and provides, among other

incentives, access to the grid and transportation fuels market.

* Setting up regional funds for financing large scale sustainable

energy investments in Africa. A more elaborate set of interventions and

policy options should be designed and further developed with the

cooperation of International agencies such as, UNEP. Comprehensive set

of policy options should be proposed to ensure sustainable energy

consumption in Africa in the near-term as well as in the long-term

future.

HYDROELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION

In the African continent, the hydro potential amounts to 1.75 TWh

with about 5% only in real operation as indicated in figure 2. The total

hydropower potential for Africa is equivalent to the total electricity

consumed in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy put together.

The Democratic Republic of Congo accounts for over 50% of Africa’s

hydropower potential, to the order of 100,000 MW. Of this potential

44,000 MW is at Inga, a series of rapids about 150km from the mouth of

the Congo River. Other countries with hydropower potential include

Angola, Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Madagascar, Mozambique, Niger

and Zambia, AEEP,2009. Large-scale hydropower provides over 50% of total

power supply in 23 countries in Africa. Hydropower can benefit from

economies of scale to produce very low priced power in the range of 3-4

USc/kWh. It contributes to both energy security and increased access to

energy. At the same time hydropower faces risks of siltation, droughts

and potentially has impacts on human settlements and other land uses.

unexploited technical and economically feasible 57.9%

unexploited, technically feasible 37.1%

in operation 49.%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Applications of Solar Energy

Regulations

BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC (BIPV) SYSTEMS

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Application of PV systems

PV On – Grid Application

PV Off-Grid Application

PV installation guide

WIND ENERGY

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

The locations along the Gulf of Suez of Zafaranna, Gabal ElZeit.

Hurghada have wind speeds up to 10.8 m/s. Main on grid power is already

generated from Zafaranna Wind Turbines.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

Africa-EU Energy Partnership Road Map, 2009, AEEP Road Map, v8,

September 2009

Hubbert, M.K., 1972, Man’s Conquest of Energy: Its Ecological

and Human Consequences”, in the Environmental and Ecological Forum

1971-1972, Washington, D.C., US Atomic Energy Commission Publication

TID-25857,1972.

IEA, International Energy Agency Year book, 2009

Karakes S., Wangeci. J and Manyara E., 2009, African Energy Policy

Research Network (AFREPREN/FWD).Nairobi, Kenya

Khalil, E.E., Renewable Energy in Africa, ASHRAE seminar, January

2011.

UN-DESA 2009, f Division for Sustainable Development, UN-DESA

Report, 2009

UN-DESA, 2004, Sustainable Energy Consumption in Africa, UN-DESA

Report,2004 WWW.Renewable energy-Wikipedia.the Free encyclopedia, 2009.

Prof. Essam E. Khalil, PHD

Fellow ASHRAE

Essam E. Khalil is a professor in the Department of Mechanical

Power Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

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