i have a paper about it. it says “describe the energy transfers and anergy transformations involved in solar use. can someone help me on this and specific terms?
Solar energy itself is a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
There are many energy transformations involved in utilizing solar energy productively.
Photosynthesis is a photo-chemical process by which a very narrow frequency bandwidth of electromagnetic radiation is utilized to store energy as chemicals such as sugars. This chemically stored energy is then either transformed into conventional biofuels or slowly transformed over millions of years into fossil fuels (yes, fossil fuels is solar power). The efficiency of photosynthesis is typically less than 1% in plants, the theoretical limit of photosynthesis is 6.6% efficiency.
Photovoltaic uses a very very narrow bandwidth of electromagnetic radiation to liberate an electron from a semiconductor material thereby producing electrical power. However there are techniques of utilizing different semiconductor materials that respond to different frequencies and using materials that absorb light in one frequency and re-emit them in another in order to utilize more of the available electromagnetic energy. University of Delaware has been able to achieve 42.8% efficiency with photo-voltaic but most commercial units are in the 15% to 25% range. There are also technologies in the 3% to 5% efficiency range that should prove to be very inexpensive, literally solar panels that are painted on.
Solar thermal involves a broad range of frequencies being absorbed and re-emitted in the infrared spectrum (heat) and then collected for use as such. Although this collects much of the energy from solar radiation, it's in a form that's of the least value. It is possible to air condition with heat via absorption cycle chillers but otherwise this technology is mostly suited to general heating and water heating although it can be used to run steam turbines for the generation of electricity when used on a large scale.
Hydro power is when solar energy evaporates water from the sea, precipitating that water out at higher elevations which then flow back to the sea allowing the energy to be transformed from the kinetic energy of the water to electricity via turbines or stored as potential energy.
Wind power is from temperature gradients in the atmosphere caused by uneven heating from solar radiation which can then be transformed into electric power by wind turbines.
Basically the use of solar energy involves transforming it to another form of energy, whether it's transformed from radiation to chemical, to thermal, to electric to kinetic, transformations are needed before the energy is useful.
As to the term “anergy”, that must be a complete and utter misuse of the English language. Anergy is the medical term for a body's failure to respond to an antigen and is an immunological disorder characterized by the pathology of a “lack of energy”. In this sense the “energy” refers to the vigor with which one has to live life and though that is related to the biological availability of chemical energy, it is not meant to be a term directly related to energy in a physical sense.